Organise seminars/ conferences / workshops and use of quizzes, Traditional teaching e.g. use of proverbs, riddles, stories,
Revive the influence of elders, aunts.
Preaching the gospel: the church in its preaching should use relevant texts to teach people about sex.
Organise youth camps, clubs and societies where they can know diseases responsible use of sex.
Advice should be given by medical workers.
Leisure activities like games and sports.
Women organisations such as women guild mothers union can help the youth and other married people to have responsible relationships.
Through music and drama a lot can be taught to the masses,
Influence of church leaders in the teaching and ministry of the word.
Parents should be responsible to teach and advise children on relationships.
The problem of sex is a result of a lack of sex education. Discuss
The statement is time; many problems related to sex are as a result of lack of sex education as noted in the following:-
Many young people today do not prepare for marriage life and as a result lack sex education.
Traditional rites of passages are dying out without concrete modern replacement in which a lot was taught.
Many enter marriage with lots of fear, myth, superstition, ignorance and wrong motives.
This was the duty done by aunts, uncles and the elderly who are diminishing therefore the youth lack touch with right people to instruct them on sex and related issues.
Sex education is difficult to be imparted by parents to their children who need to gain courage to educate them i.e. parents are shy to teach children.
Lack of good example from married people who often divorce, separate and the presence of single parenthood for proper use of sex and idea married life,
Formal schools and universities are centres of ignorance regarding sexual life, marriage and procreation experience; there is therefore a need to intensify sex education for balanced life.
Due to economic hardships; parents are busy looking for money and have no time to attend to children as it was in African tradition, where right people answered their questions.
There is the problem of generation gap, a feeling that young people know more about sex but there is need to correct this.
Because of the AIDS scourge, children are left without mature people responsible in their welfare, no proper instruction about sex, marriage and procreation; at times a young teenager cares for the young siblings.
Premarital counselling was a must through bush schools which is not done today.
The church and its leaders are not serious on sex education and this is worsened by lack of example by leaders.
Peer group pressure also distorts good knowledge of sex; abuse and misuse are common because of what friends are doing leading to wrong attitudes to sex. In Africa fornication and other promiscuity were severely punished, virginity valued and sex was for the married people only.
Due to lack of sex education, proper use of sex; with whom, when, how brings a number of problems including early pregnancies abortion, STDs and in marriage divorce.
Hygiene, respect for husband, roles are lacking as it was in African tradition.
Other factors that causes sex related problems
- Mass media such as pornographic literature, blue movies etc.
- Permissiveness of society with a care free attitude.
- Environmental factors experience where people reside / live.
- Physiological aspect such as impotence, frigidity, high libido content whereby one very high appetite for sex.
- Frustration which makes some people act abnormally.
- Urbanisation and its related problems.
- Adultery makes one have extra experience, such that by the time one comes back the partner is above.
- Lack of faithfulness / trust in ones partners.
- Legitimate use of sex in the Christian community:
- Sex to be within monogamous marriage (Mk 10:6-8).
For procreation of children (Gen 2: 18) it is not good for man to be alone." God created Eve for Adam and when she was presented to him he exclaimed woman in joy (Gen 2:24).
Sex acts as a remedy against sin "do not deny each other (1 cor 7:5).
Sex stabilises marriage e.g. the Catholic Church if consummation does not take place in the first seven days it automatically qualifies divorce.
To complement on what man lacks (female sexual organ) so a woman was created so that human need is ratified (Gen 2: 18).
It should be heterosexual between male and female.
Sex should be out of mutual consent.
Sex should be between adults and in Uganda 18 years above.
It should be between non- relatives (Lev 18:6-19). The Bible condemns incest.
Sex is very useful as an outlet of passion (human) due to instinct.
The sexual act between married people is sacred; the married bed should not be defiled (Heb 13:4).
Sex in marriage acts as a sacrament: an outside physical union is a spiritual union and growth.
Looking at a woman lustfully (Mt 5:27f) is already adultery so one's heart determines proper use of sex.
Sex relationship is one of the intimate union between husband and wife as they become one flesh. In Gen 2:24 one leaves parents and unites to his wife and two become one.
In the New Testament, a man needs a woman and a woman needs a man in the Lord (1 Cor 11: 11) and this leads to fulfillment and therefore companionship.
Many young people in modern Africa think they know more and a lot about sex than in traditional African but this is deceptive. They say so because of the following:-
They are exposed to Romantic love and sex which is below real sex and love experience and lack responsible parenthood.
Romantic songs today create curiosity among the young ones exposing them to theoretical part of it and later transformed into practical.
Influence of peer groups who instead encourage immorality as they discuss different play positions and styles etc.
Non governmental organisations (NGOs) in a bid to limit the spread of AIDS it ends up propagating the seed e.g. in their ABC strategy condoms are given a safer way and at times give out condoms so the youth use them for practical.
Sex education is part of the syllabus today which starts in primary, in guidance and counselling in secondary schools as well as CRE Paper 4 at Advanced level.
Church leaders facilitate the propagation of the education as they condemn sexual abuse, provide guidance and councelling to the married as well as using the bible to give suitable examples for example Mothers Union.
Entertainment centres like disco halls, some of which can be trans-night.
Leisure sources like programs on TV and radio or video shows expose sex films like blue movies.
The presence of traditional functions like birth of twins, circumcision exercise more young ones to sex e.g. Imbalu ceremonies make a number of girls raped at night.
The spread of the AIDS scourge has led to a lot of talk about safe sex by use of condoms e.g. "So smooth, so strong, feels good and the youth need to experience the ‘smoothness'
Through mass media such as ‘straight talk' man and women in Newspapers like the Redpepper in particular and magazines like Spice, Secret, Mirror etc all expose a lot about sex.
The environment worsened by poor housing conditions like slums where parents stay in one room with children. Adults play sex when children are listening or even watching. This exposes children to sex secrets.
The environment also may have people who lack respect for others and can do sex even in the open while children are watching.
Presence of Prostitutes, gigolos, Sugar Daddies and Mummies portray sex as away solving ones economic problems.
The permissive society is coupled with dubious, immoral people who have gone on passing over sexual issues in form of obscene talk such as 'fuck you' and parents are no longer embarrassed.
Family planning technology which make it possible for one to have sex without getting pregnant. This is sometimes done through advertisements.
Pornography; displays pictures of naked women and men playing sex in tabloids like when Redpepper showed students having a bash.
However, there are some good aspects of sex knowledge today:
Sengas in Buganda still continue their roles.
Even straight talk has an element of responsible sex.
There are also youth counselling centres like Naguru and family planning centres. Religion also plays a role in modelling the young on issues of sex and marriage and responsible parenthood through a conference.
Seminars for youth are organised to help educate youth.
Nevertheless, there are African values that are discouraged:-
Intimacies practiced in some societies e.g. the Masai who use sex for unity.
Marrying a wife for an impotent person is abnormal and an abuse of a woman's rights. Testing/ proving sexual ability.
Polygamy for extra sexual urge is sinful.
Use of sex for hospitality is sinful.
Mock sex on dead bodies is not acceptable.
Sex for religious purpose e.g. twin naming condemned
Inflicting pain on sexual organs for preparation of the young for sexual faithfulness unnecessary.
Though sexual offences are sinful, punishment should be referred to God. There is also need forgiveness.
The use of mass media in impacting sex education.
Mass media are various means/ways of imparting knowledge or delivering information to the masses and they include: TV, radio, Internet, Magazines, newspapers can be useful in importing sex education because:-
It informs the general masses through using quick means. It has wide coverage and can cover large areas.
It can offer educative values to different age groups.
Acts as a warning on impending dangers about certain diseases such as AIDS and offers preventive measures like it has done on STDS through straight talk.
It is helpful to those who may not have access to formal institutional education.
However, it has the following weaknesses:-
It is limited to the literate group who can read and are well to do.
Limited to urban centres where such are available e.g. newspapers and magazines. Televisions and videos used electricity or batteries which may be expensive and unavailable in some areas especially electricity in rural areas some people cannot afford.
Newspapers/ magazines are expensive to buy daily.
Languages of communication in case of illiterates or use vermicular which some people cannot understand.
Some programs contradict Christian teaching e.g. encouraging the use of condoms. It does not cater for age groups e.g. a youth program may not be pleasant to adults. In most cases it does not give chance for people to respond or ask questions.
Programs are set particular time of the day e.g. when some people are at work, in class or very late at night when people are supposed to sleep and therefore many people miss.
It does not give chance to be rewound in case one has missed e.g. TV or radio. Unless one has a pen to write down as the program goes it is possible to forget. Some programs or writings can have bad effect on the youth exposing them to unrealistic sex.
Some people are too poor to afford.
In African traditional societies, sex education was part and parcel of the people and carried out in many ways depending of society as noted below:-
Every elder person took upon himself or herself the duty of upbringing the children with good behavior and attitudes.
Mothers and Aunts unveiled the mysteries of sex to daughters e.g. in Buganda, the Senga (aunt) taught girls all aspects about marriage and how to satisfy a man. In a similar way the men taught their boys the right ways of dealing with girls.
They made visits to the bush (okukyalira ensinko) when the labia was to be elongated (okusika enfuli). These help to hold the penis in position and make a man more stimulated in order to enjoy sex. The man is supposed to touch the labia in order to stimulate the woman.
To begin having sex it was not matter of pushing in one's penis but the man first asks if 'ekubo elyali wano Iyazika' if the way can still be used to make woman direct the organ inside and many words follow and actions.
Great respect for private parts i.e. well covered, jargons used for the parts and act never mentioned in the public in public e.g. the Baganda call it ‘akabozi ake kikulu as sign of respect.
Virginity was greatly upheld, very important feature in marriage, a sign of good discipline and morality. For that matter a goat was given to the parents or aunt for good upbringing and in case the girl was not she was greatly humiliated and no respect was given to her.
Punishment to sex offenders was heavy to discourage sex abuse.
Children of opposite sex slept differently to discourage acts of incest.
Initiation rites were a community responsibility, a stage of transmission from childhood to adulthood, and often celebrated by all to express growth.
During puberty rites, a lot was taught as a sign of growth towards adulthood e.g. in Bugisu after circumcision.
During preparation for marriage, certain lessons were conducted before the actual day of marriage to equip them with the necessary skills of marriage like in West Africa where girls were taken to gathering rooms for six months.
Uncles, elder brothers, and grandparents likewise did the same to the boys.
Free sex was only allowed or granted to married people.
At fire places; stories about sex and marriage which were educative about proper use, right place/ partnership so were myth/ riddles were taught and interpreted e.g. the Banyole have a saying; 'ndila ndi ssubi wamwange Ali mu tamu' i.e. I am mourning with hope my husband is in the pot which express how a woman on the death of her husband out off the man's genital put them in a pot covered in hope that even they burry the body she would make use of the genitals when people have dispersed only to realise later when maggots had eaten them up. This means that there is nothing a woman requires on a man than his male organ.
Elders could not expose their sexual organs to children e.g. among the Banyole it was disastrous for a child to look at them and sometimes if a man is doubting whether the child belongs to him or not he points his organ to the child so if the child is not his the child just dies or if he/ she exposes the organ to his own child in anger it would a curse to that child.
Bush schools and other organised institution were places of intensive training.
Premarital counseling was carried out and even in marriage e.g. they used words like; cleaning the bush, removing dishes, welcoming visitors, behaving like a brother, after supper (ekyekiro), acting like a kite or a rat as opposed to the sheep all regarding sexual language.
While in bed having sex were expected to have mock cries as if hurt and yet enjoying with words like 'you are killing me' while the man says 'you will not die' to give morale to the man. She counts 6666 or sshh aaa or as if taking hot soup! E.g. among the Batoro they cry 'illilili. .. allailialah' etc.
Circumcision was used to make sex appetizing and among the Sabiny women had to undergo clictectomy to control their sexual urge.
In case of marriage failure due to sex unseats faction elders came in to see if the cause of the failure is sex and advise accordingly.
How sexual values in traditional Africa are up held today
- Virginity is still upheld through not emphasised it brings more happiness and trust.
- Elders still play a big role in education of growing people.
- Initiation rites still exist.
- Sex education still taught in some schools.
- Sexual deviations are still condemned.
- Sex is still used in marriage for fellowships, companionship as an expression of love.
- Promiscuity is still being discouraged.
- Sex is still being discouraged.
- Sex is still used for transmission of life still emphasised.
Sex in marriage is still valued even in the catholic church if marriage is not consummated by sex it is not marriage and therefore no sex no marriage though today in developed countries there are some people who desire to marry but without having sex!